Analýza optimalizačních opatření pro efektivitu CNC obrábění
In order to better adapt to the inherent requirements of refined management in China’s mechanical manufacturing while ensuring product quality and safety, further improving the processing efficiency of CNC machinery plays a crucial role in enhancing the core competitiveness of manufacturing enterprises and ensuring the economic benefits of users. It also lays a good foundation for the quality of China’s economic development and resource allocation optimization. Based on this, the author summarizes the optimization measures for CNC obrábění efficiency, analyzes the influencing factors of CNC machining efficiency, and elaborates on specific optimization measures for CNC machining efficiency. The results indicate that further strengthening the research on optimization measures for the machining efficiency of CNC machinery is the trend of the development of the machining industry, which can greatly improve the machining efficiency of CNC machinery and is conducive to the transformation and upgrading of the industry.
1. Overview of optimization measures for CNC machining efficiency
- 1. Overview of optimization measures for CNC machining efficiency
- 2. Factors affecting the efficiency of CNC machining
- 3. The importance of optimizing the efficiency of CNC machining
- 4. Specific optimization measures for the processing efficiency of CNC machinery
- 5. Conclusion
CNC machinery is commonly referred to as CNC. The first CNC machine tool was born in 1952. It is a revolutionary product in the field of mechanical processing, an important tool for improving processing efficiency, and one of the most widely used mechanical equipment in the mechanical processing industry. It is significant for ensuring processing efficiency and quality and is a great innovation in mechanical processing in the 20th century. It is mainly used for cutting various mechanical components, such as cylindrical surfaces, spherical surfaces, threads, and curved surfaces. It performs processes such as slot cutting, drilling, edging, and boring according to the requirements of process drawings. The main principle is to program machining programs based on machining process requirements, drawing process parameters, and routes and then input them into CNC mechanical devices. The speed, angle, and orientation of machining are controlled through specialized software systems so CNC machinery can process according to the above set requirements. As the soul of CNC machinery, the continuous development and optimization of CNC technology is the foundation for achieving intelligent, flexible, and integrated manufacturing and processing, as well as the core of modern advanced productivity. It is also an indispensable means to improve the quality of manufacturing products, achieve complex machining, and improve processing efficiency.
2. Factors affecting the efficiency of CNC machining
To improve the processing efficiency of CNC machinery, it is necessary to carefully analyze the influencing factors, which helps to take correct optimization measures to improve processing efficiency. The main influencing factors are as follows.
2.1 Accuracy and reliability of CNC machinery itself
From the perspective of processing efficiency, it is mainly divided into maneuvering and auxiliary duration. CNC machinery’s spindle speed and intake range are faster and more accurate than traditional machinery, and it automatically uses the optimal cutting amount to control cutting efficiency and quality. Therefore, if there is a lack of good equipment maintenance work, it is bound to be unable to guarantee the processing efficiency and quality that should be achieved, affecting the manufacturing process and results.
2.2 Environmental Control of CNC machinery working conditions
From the characteristics of CNC machinery, it has the characteristics of strong adaptability, long continuous working time, and stability. It can better meet the needs of batch production and flexible production. It can also automate operations according to CNC programs, improving processing efficiency and quality. However, in actual working conditions, some CNC machines require multiple sets of electrical equipment for driving machining. Suppose environmental factors such as human factors or electromagnetic interference occur during the machining process, which affects the normal operation of CNC machines. In that case, it will hurt machining efficiency. The precision and complexity of CNC mechanical structures can significantly impact machining efficiency if faults cannot be repaired correctly and promptly.
2.3 PLC CNC program
CNC machinery is strictly executed according to CNC programs. If the level of PLC programming technology is insufficient, it will decrease the later operation and operational efficiency of CNC machinery. In severe cases, product quality problems may even occur, leading to the need for re-processing of products, seriously affecting processing efficiency and quality.
3. The importance of optimizing the efficiency of CNC machining
- 1) Against the backdrop of continuous socio-economic development in China, CNC machinery has played an important role in developing the national economy. It has become an important component of the economic system. It is of great significance for enhancing the intelligent manufacturing capabilities of enterprises and expanding the innovation of processing technology. It is an advanced representative of China’s intelligent manufacturing industry upgrading and digital manufacturing and is the main development direction in the future processing field.
- 2) Improving the processing efficiency of CNC machinery can ensure the economic benefits of enterprises, promote industrial transformation and upgrading, enhance international competitiveness, and play a good role in improving China’s economic resource optimization and allocation system.
- 3) The improvement of CNC mechanical efficiency will certainly drive the rapid development of CNC technology with PLC as the core, especially in domestic substitution. Improving processing efficiency can save a lot of workforce and material resources. On the other hand, it can promote the continuous improvement of CNC technology, thereby achieving a virtuous cycle between CNC technology and the development of CNC machinery.
- 4) Digital technology has promoted energy conservation and environmental protection in CNC machining and manufacturing. The lean processing and production model can effectively reduce enterprise resource consumption, reduce processing unit cost, and ensure that various environmental pollution factors are well controlled; At the same time, it also conforms to the national policies and guidelines for energy conservation and environmental protection. Therefore, from this perspective, the importance of the deep integration of automation technology and CNC machining for upgrading China’s machining mode is obvious.
4. Specific optimization measures for the processing efficiency of CNC machinery
4.1 Scientific Selection of CNC Machinery and CNC Technology
- 1) Improving the processing efficiency of CNC machinery is not just about seeking novelty and luxury but balancing the characteristics, cost, economy, and reliability of the processed products and scientifically selecting the most suitable CNC machinery. In the procurement process, not only should the performance of CNC machinery be considered, but also factors such as its requirements for working conditions and environment, supporting measures for subsequent maintenance of mechanical components, and adaptability of CNC technology and operator level should be considered. We can only find the most suitable solution for improving our processing efficiency by comprehensively and scientifically considering these factors. For example, in selecting CNC machining tools, most CNC machines must control the waiting time to the minimum to fully utilize the limited time to process more products to save cutting time. There is a close correlation between the cutting process and the cutting tools. Choosing tools with better quality and more suitable models significantly improves machining efficiency, and emphasizing the debugging and daily maintenance of CNC machinery has become a key link.
- 2) To improve processing efficiency, we must rely on more than just purchasing the latest CNC machinery methods. Still, we should tap into the processing potential of current CNC machinery while living within our means and adopt efficient and advanced new CNC technologies to improve processing efficiency. Mainly starting from the following aspects: Firstly, for the processing of components with high hardness, brittleness, and complex surface, corresponding methods can be adopted to improve processing efficiency. For example, it is recommended to replace traditional bench work with methods such as EDM forging dies and laser deep hole processing; Secondly, the use of new processes such as cold forging, powder metallurgy, and wind casting in the manufacturing of component blanks to improve blank accuracy and reduce the proportion of CNC machine tool cutting operations has a significant effect on improving processing efficiency and reducing costs; Thirdly, traditional cutting machines are often replaced by chip free processes such as cold rolling and rolling.
- 3) Select the appropriate processing amount based on the characteristics of the workpiece. The selection of processing parameters are closely related to cutting tools, CNC mechanical performance, processing technology, etc. The specific methods for selecting parameters are as follows: firstly, during the rough machining of workpieces, the main consideration is improving processing efficiency and fully utilizing CNC machinery’s advantages and cutting ability. Therefore, a larger back draft, feed rate, and medium to the low cutting speed of 8mm to 10mm are selected; Secondly, during precision machining of machined parts, to ensure that the machining accuracy meets the requirements, a smaller back feed, feed rate, and medium to the high cutting speed of 0.2mm-1.5mm are selected; Thirdly, to improve processing efficiency, a higher feed speed can be selected to a certain extent, and it also needs to be matched with the spindle speed and back cutting amount, especially when turning deep holes and precision turning, it is advisable to choose a lower feed speed. Therefore, establishing a complete tool database, integrating all information of the tool system into the information management system for centralized management, and establishing a paperless tool management system have become urgent tasks to improve machining efficiency.
4.2 Control and reduce the time quota for processing individual parts
1) Start by reducing preparation time.
Mainly through adopting and optimizing new process technologies such as automatic tool changing devices, fully automatic tool fine adjustment, and diamond roller forming and dressing grinding wheel devices, the preparation time is effectively reduced, thereby improving processing efficiency.
2) Start by increasing the cutting amount.
With the rapid development of materials and manufacturing processes, the performance of various types of new tools and grinding wheels has also been significantly improved, especially in cutting and grinding speed. For example, cutting tools made of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride material can achieve a cutting speed of 1000m/min in a certain environment, which is more than four times higher than traditional hard alloy cutting tools; The modern and more advanced high-speed grinding wheel can achieve a speed of 95m/s and a cutting depth of 14mm, which is more than 5 times higher than traditional grinding efficiency. It can be seen that its effect on improving processing efficiency is still very obvious.
3) Start by shortening the length of the cutting stroke.
For example, using multiple turning tools to process the same surface, combined with the wide grinding wheel cutting method, can reduce the cutting stroke, shorten the processing time, and improve efficiency.
4) Starting with the use of multi-axis machining technology.
According to the characteristics of the components, mixed cutting tools and multi-axis machine tools can be used to process different surfaces and parts simultaneously, which can effectively merge processes and shorten tool change time, thereby reducing the labor hours spent due to process reasons and improving processing efficiency.
5) Starting with the use of multiple simultaneous processing techniques and processes.
It can be divided into three methods: sequential multi-piece processing. This method is commonly used in processes such as surface grinding, gantry planing, and gear hobbing, mainly by reducing the time required for the tool to cut in and out and reducing the basic and auxiliary time allocated to each workpiece. The second is parallel multi-piece machining. This method is commonly used in milling processes, mainly relying on its ability to perform operations on multiple workpieces simultaneously so that the processing time of each workpiece is a fraction of that of a single piece. However, this method must also consider factors such as machining size, motor drive power, accuracy, and material rigidity. It can only increase the number of workpieces processed simultaneously with limitation. The third is parallel sequential multi-piece machining. This method is commonly used in the vertical axis flat grinding process, which mainly combines the advantages of the above two methods and is more suitable for processing large batches of small-size machined parts.
4.3 Optimize production maintenance management and environmental control level
- 1) From the perspective of processing efficiency and quality of CNC machinery, strict adherence to operating procedures and good maintenance work is crucial for improving the processing efficiency of CNC machinery. They can maximize the expected productivity of the machinery and are one of the core elements for improving processing efficiency. For example, in the processing and maintenance process, careful lubrication and regular maintenance and replacement of related components can greatly extend the service life of CNC machinery.
- 2) From the perspective of the working environment of CNC machinery, maintaining a clean, tidy, and ventilated working environment can effectively prevent related components from affecting processing efficiency due to adverse environments. For example, do a good job in 5S of CNC machinery, regularly calibrate and inspect to maintain good working conditions of CNC machinery; Stable power and network conditions are also crucial for ensuring processing efficiency. For example, from the power grid voltage stability perspective, the power supply stability of CNC machinery requires a voltage fluctuation range error of within 3%. Considering that the CNC machinery has overload and underload protection and voltage stabilization devices, once abnormal fluctuations occur in the power facilities, CNC machinery can timely activate the self-protection system to ensure that CNC machinery will not be damaged due to voltage instability. Therefore, it is recommended to install AC voltage stabilizing equipment for power supply in CNC machinery, which can better play the adaptive voltage function, improve the anti-interference ability of CNC machinery, and ensure processing efficiency.
4.4 Optimizing and Implementing Multiple CNC Machine Tool Management Modes
This model is a relatively efficient operator configuration mode, where the processing efficiency can be multiplied by one operator simultaneously managing X CNC machines. However, adopting this method must also meet certain prerequisites: firstly, if a single person is used to supervise multiple machines, it must be ensured that the total manual operation time of any X-1 CNC machine is less than the maneuvering time of the X-th CNC machine; Secondly, it is best for each CNC machine to have an automatic alarm and parking device, which can ensure that it automatically stops working in the event of an emergency, thereby avoiding the expansion of the accident scope; Thirdly, when managing CNC machinery, it is necessary to consider the time for operators to return and replace tools, molds, and fixtures; Fourthly, it is best to stagger the timing of manual processing operations to maximize processing efficiency; Fifth, this mode requires relatively high levels of operator literacy and management experience, so it is necessary to provide systematic training and assessment for operators, and gradually increase the number of CNC machines managed simultaneously to improve processing efficiency and quality.
In summary, further strengthening the research on optimization measures for CNC machining efficiency is the trend of the development of the processing industry, playing an increasingly important role in ensuring the maximum improvement of CNC machining efficiency, improving economic benefits, and helping industrial transformation and upgrading.
Why: Li Jinlian